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Tanzania
Overview Background Solutions Documents

Agriculture drives economic growth in Tanzania and accounts for 45% of GDP. Around 80% of the nation’s workforce is engaged in farming and supporting industries. These workers tend 5.1 million hectares of land, 85% of which support food crops. Tanzania is not short of water, having three major lakes, nine river basins and adequate groundwater. However, as few as 300,000 hectares are irrigated. Applying appropriate agricultural water management (AWM) technologies and practises could therefore contribute greatly to stabilising agricultural production and improving livelihoods.

The AgWater Solutions Project has been working in Tanzania for two years. Project staff initially reviewed existing AWM practises and their geographical contexts using field observations, secondary data sources, household interviews and discussions with key organisations. The project’s research has revealed that there are numerous AWM technologies and methods in use in Tanzania. These include:


Project
Countries
Burkina
Faso
Ethiopia
Ghana
India
Madhya Pradesh
India
West Bengal
Tanzania
Zambia
Conservation agriculture (CA).
    Rrainwater harvesting and storage systems.
    Communal irrigation schemes (community managed river diversions).
    Water-lifting devices.
    Drip irrigation.
    Power tillage and tower gardening.

More information about these AWM solutions and the background situation in Tanzania can be found in the Situation Analysis Briefing Notes.
Based on the initial review and advice from a range of stakeholders in the country, the project team singled out communal irrigation systems, water-lifting devices and Conservation Agriculture for more detailed review and analysis. These detailed case studies and information about other project activities in Tanzania, including research, workshops and mapping, can be found on the Country Solutions and Documents Pages.

Activities to Date
Inception and Midterm Workshops
An inception workshop for the entire project was held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in May 2009. The project plan was discussed and work plan details were agreed for all countries. In January 2010, a midterm project workshop was held in Lusaka, Zambia, which was attended by representatives from each country where the project is being undertaken. The participants reviewed progress, adapted work plans, and further detailed outputs and outreach plans for all countries.
Tanzania Partner Meeting
In June 2009, the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) held a meeting with the Soil and Water Management Research Program (SWMRP) of the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) to commence the project's watershed component in Tanzania. The Mkindo Watershed in the Wami River Basin was selected as the watershed study site and collaborative contracts were subsequently signed to commence the research.
Situation Analysis of AWM Technologies
The purpose of the Situation Analysis was to provide background material on and analysis of:
Existing environmental, hydrological and climatic conditions.
    National institutional and policy frameworks related to AWM.
    Typologies of existing AWM practices and their geographic spread.
    Key actors who are supporting the development of AWM in each region.
    Promising AWM solutions that merit further detailed study.

The study reviewed a wide variety of AWM practices, including Conservation Agriculture; water harvesting and storage systems; irrigation schemes; water-lifting devices; and drip systems. The findings are presented in a comprehensive report. This has been summarized and is available as a short briefing note on the project website.

National Consultation Workshop
The National Consultation Workshop was held in April 2010, at the Council Chambers, University of Dar es Salaam. The workshop was facilitated by Prof. Henry Mahoo (SWMRP,SUA), Bernard Keraita (IWMI) and Victor Kongo (SEI) and attended by some 30 participants from various organizations. The workshop was an opportunity for stakeholder engagement and for participants to share their opinions on AWM solutions that would be appropriate for Tanzania and could be out-scaled. The participants prioritized water lifting and application technologies; Conservation Agriculture; communal irrigation systems; and small reservoirs. The workshop minutes were circulated to the participants and a summary of the minutes can be found as a briefing note on the project website.
Livelihoods Mapping Workshop
A one-day workshop was held in Dar es Salaam in March 2010, to map rural livelihood patterns and to assess the potential for poverty reduction through upscaling of AWM solutions in Tanzania. The workshop was organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). The objectives of this workshop were to:
Define a typology of livelihood zones in Tanzania.
    Prepare a national map locating the main livelihood zones of Tanzania.
    Identify the potential of promising AWM solutions in Tanzania for poverty reduction in each of these livelihood zones.
ACTIVITIES IN TANZANIA
Experts from various relevant disciplines and institutes participated in the workshop to identify, locate and describe the main livelihood patterns in Tanzania, and to discuss the relevance of AWM in relation to rural livelihoods. The initial set of maps prepared during the workshop formed the basis for additional data collection and analysis by the project team. Preliminary outputs from this workshop and subsequent analysis were presented in a technical workshop held on November 25, 2010.
Mkindo Watershed Consultation

SUA hosted a stakeholder consultation in August 2010 in collaboration with IWMI and SEI. The purpose of the consultation was to share and cross-check draft results from the watershed level analysis (see below).

In addition to these events, the project team has held several smaller, informal meetings with representatives of the Wami River Basin Office and other key stakeholders.

Field Level Case Studies
To date, two case studies on water-lifting devices and communal irrigation systems have been completed, and a case study on Conservation Agriculture (which includes an assessment of small reservoirs) is underway. The case study on water-lifting devices was carried out in the Mvomero, Lushoto, Kinondoni/Ilala and Dodoma (urban) districts and involved more than 250 farmers. In addition, data has been collected from various actors in the supply chain, especially those involved in selling small motor pumps and pump accessories. The case study on communal irrigation schemes was conducted mainly in Mvomero District, covering Dakawa, Hembeti and Mkindo irrigation schemes, and was supported by cases from Njombe, Lushoto, Arumeru and Moshi (urban) districts. Data was collected from more than 170 farmers.
Watershed Level Case Studies
The project is carrying out five complementary research tasks in the Mkindo Watershed, Wami River Basin, to assess the:
Hydrological impact of current and potential AWM interventions.
    Current land use patterns, including irrigated and rainfed agriculture.
    Current resource-based livelihoods in each watershed and related dependencies on different sources of water, and water management practices at community and watershed scale.
    Impact assessment of potential AWM scenarios at watershed scale.
    Formal and informal institutional capacity to deal with AWM interventions and potential emerging externalities.