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The project has looked in detail at various AWM interventions that can help farmers improve their productivity. After investigation and consultation with key players in Tanzania, we have identified three key areas of activity: Community Managed River Diversions, Conservation Agriculture, and Water Lifting Technologies.

AWM Solutions Solution and Government Support Beneficiaries*
(% of rural households)
Communal Irrigation Schemes Infrastructure improvements, farmer training, micro-credit and marketing.

Fund training as well as infrastructure.
Support credit agencies so farmers can invest.
275,000 – 986,000 farmers
Motor Pumps

Training for farmers to enable them to select, buy, rent and use motor pumps.Affordable credit or pumps to rent.

Fund training through extension agents.
Work with pump suppliers to provide better information.
Support credit agencies so farmers can invest.

399,000 – 595,000 farmers
In situ water
Farmer groups and training helps to spread the use of conservation agriculture and increase yields.

Fund training through extension agents.
Train trainers – field school, demonstrations.
Fund infrastructure e.g. rainwater harvesting.
197,000 – 924,000 farmers
Terracing 10,000 – 157,000 farmers
Madhya Pradesh
West Bengal
Community Managed River Diversions
Ways to improve CMRD
  Expand and improve infrastructure, concentrating on off-takes and main canals.
  Offer training in on-farm water management, farming practices, bookkeeping and marketing. Facilitate infrastructure improvements and investment in better farming practices.
  Strengthen micro-credit facilities, by separating the savings and credit cooperative organizations (SACCOs) from the banking system, investing directly in credible SACCOs, and enforcing
Figure 4. Comprarative paddy yields in CMR Ds. M vo mero District
Over 90% of community managed river diversion (CMRD) schemes are ‘traditional’ irrigation schemes initiated and managed by farmers. Infrastructure is poor, yields are low and water use efficiency is 15-30%.

Investing in improvements to existing CMRD irrigation schemes can lead to gains in water productivity and household income(Figure 4). There are large differences in productivity between farmers in the same irrigation scheme, suggesting that infrastructure is not the only issue. On-farm water management and farming practices can also be improved.
Water Lifting Technologies
As water lifting technologies (WLTs) are often used to irrigate vegetables in the dry season, if managed well, they can substantially increase farmers’ incomes. Of the water lifting technologies available, over 85% of farmers in Tanzania rely on buckets and watering cans. These are useful but farmers complain about the drudgery and labor requirements.

Improving access to motor pumps can reduce the labor requirements of manual irrigation, allowing farmers who currently rely on rain to irrigate and improve efficiency, yield and income (Figures 5 and 6).

However, while many farmers know about motor pumps, they do not use them, largely because of the costs. Investments in credit facilities, pump rental markets, technical information and extension can help improve access to motorized pumps.
Ways to stimulate adoption of
Water Lifting Technologies
  Support existing SACCOs so that they do not have to be funded by banks and can give more flexible loans.
  Establish pump rental businesses (see Business Model “Irrigation Service Provider”).
  Create and distribute a registry of information on all motor pumps on the market.
  Train extension service providers to give information and advice on horticulture as well as traditional crops and cereals.
  Provide advice on marketing strategies.
  Train farmers in the selection, use and maintenance of pumps.
For more information see the briefs: ‘River Diversions in Tanzania’, ‘Water Lifting Technologies in Tanzania ’ and ‘Irrigation Service Provider: a Business Model’. Figures 5 and 6: Sample yields and profitability from motor umps ps (MP), treadle pumps (TP), manual buckets ts (MB) and rainfed systems (RF), Morogoro and Dodoma.
Conservation Agriculture
Conservation Agriculture (CA) covers a range of techniques for capturing and storing water as well as improving soil quality and ultimately agricultural output. Field trials have demonstrated positive yield and environmental impact and farmers are interested in adopting but are hindered by lack of finances, training and land ownership rights.
Farmers often use more than one CA technique including:

Terracing- sections of a hill are leveled or grassed to prevent rapid runoff, contributing to water and nutrient conservation.
Conservation tillage - maintenance of the soil cover and rotation of crops.
Chololo pits – micro-catchments and water storage pits.
Trenches – collect water and act as composting pits.
Cover cropping - intercropping with crops that reduce evaporation.

Several factors hinder adoption of CA. Certain techniques require a lot of labor; farmers have insufficient capital and training to support investments in new technologies; they lack information about and access to input and output markets; and there are often issues of land tenure. The time lag to realize returns from investment in CA technologies, generally more than 2 years, also deters many farmers.

Ways to stimulate adoption of
CA strategies
  Train trainers (e.g. NGOs, suppliers, extension agents) on CA techniques and their benefits.
  Provide good materials and training packs.
  Train farmers, clearly stipulating the advantages and disadvantages of each technology. Include demonstration plots and exchange visits.
  Register these farmers to become trainers.
  Form farmer groups to enhance up-scaling.
  Link farmers with dealers and financial institutions to address supply chain constraints.
Topics which should be covered in the training are:
Management of strategic watersheds.
Rainwater harvesting and storage.
Management of nutrients through cover crops.