Situation analysis and
This step starts with making an inventory of existing initiatives, ideas and projects: Who is doing what? What approaches work and where? What are the factors that influence success or failure? The idea is to cast the net wide and look not only at technologies but also policy and management innovations.
Next, the resulting long list of possible AWM solutions must be screened using five key criteria (outlined in Box 1) to identify those that deserve a closer look. In the AgWater Solutions project, an important element in this process is the national consultation meeting where stakeholders make a first selection of promising solutions for their country. This national scoring and priority setting exercise not only facilitates rapid identification of the most appropriate AWM solutions, but also improves linkages among stakeholders and builds a spirit of collaboration.
In depth study to analyze
opportunities and constraints
Step 2 is to analyze opportunities and constraints for the promising solutions identified in Step 1, while looking for ways to enhance the former and ease the latter. PROCA focuses on seven clusters of constraints that must be addressed for a technology or a policy/management innovation to succeed (see Box 2). Some of these constraints will be internal to the community and can often be resolved locally; others will be the result of external forces and will require action at higher levels (for example, changes in national policy). This analysis will result in an even shorter list of possible solutions and a better understanding of the circumstances under which they can be successful.
Analysis of outscaling impacts
Although it's important to consider outscaling impacts from the beginning of the process, a more in-depth impact assessment is required before promoting the spread of an innovation. Step 3 is to evaluate the likely positive and negative impacts and externalities of outscaling the promising AWM solutions identified in Step 2 - looking at the potential to positively or negatively affect water resources, the wider economy and the environment. This analysis can help not only to identify AWM solutions with few negative social and environmental externalities but also measures for reducing such externalities.