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Ethiopia
Overview Background Solutions Documents
Small Motor Pumps
Encouraging enterprises that combine the supply of pumps, technical support to farmers and markets for produce, could greatly improve the use of water lifting technologies and bring economic benefits to farmers.

The Opportunity
The Government of Ethiopia is keen to make use of groundwater by supporting farming households in the use of private hand-dug wells and suitable water lifting technologies (WLTs).
The Research
The project carried out research to identify factors that influenced the adoption of WLTs, particularly motor pumps, by smallholder farmers in four regions: Amhara, Oromia, SNNP and Tigray.
Adoption Rates
30% of the farmers interviewed had adopted petrol/diesel pumps, 3% used electric pumps and 1% used treadle pumps. Petrol/diesel pumps were almost evenly distributedacross the regions studied. Female headed households were found to be less likely to adopt WLTs and constituted only 3% of the adopters compared to 21% of non-adopters. Households with higher numbers of adult males were more likely to adopt WLTs.
Project
Countries
Burkina
Faso
Ethiopia
Ghana
India
Madhya Pradesh
India
West Bengal
Tanzania
Zambia
Factors Affecting Adoption
Access to a year round water source.
    Information awareness.
    Land size.
    The cost of WLTs.
    Access to fuel, spare parts and support services.
WLTs are usually used to grow marketable crops such as vegetables but markets may be distant, there is considerable competition and farmers have limited capacity and power to negotiate prices.Farmers used their own money rather than credit to buy pumps, but where credit was available motor pump adoption increased.

Households who received remittances are more likely to adopt motor pumps while farmers who engage in off-farm activities are less likely to, possibly because they are often the poorest and avoid risk.

Solutions to Support Adoption
Support the establishment of businesses that sell a variety of pumps and provide after-sales services and parts.
    Help with start-up capital or tax exemptions.
    Train dealers in technical aspects, marketing and after-sales services, and support them in setting up demonstration plots.
    Explore opportunities for pump rental markets.
    Develop and air appropriate information programs on the radio.
Opportunities for Agricultural Use of Groundwater
Ethiopia has large reserves of groundwater that could be used to drive agricultural growth. Better hydro-geoplogical mapping, changes to existing policy, and capacity building are needed to harness this untapped resource.
The Opportunity
in Ethiopia, a core strategy for lessening the impact of uncertain rainfall on agricultural production is to invest in irrigation, particularly at the small-scale and household level.

Over the next five years, The Ethiopian government plans to develop 8,000 hectares as a pilot study using groundwater. This ambitious effort will require institutional and human capacity development, technology procurement and transfer as well as more up-to-date and reliable hydrogeological data and maps.

Factors Affecting Groundwater Exploitation
Agricultural use of groundwater is low. Data from 8,000 boreholes indicates that over 80% of groundwater use is for domestic purposes. Most wells are shallow and have low yields of less than 10 l/s.

Groundwater reserves may be greater than the commonly used estimate of 2.5 billion cubic meters (BCM).

The coverage and scale of the available geological and hydrogeological data and maps are not adequate for managing groundwater. A new groundwater database known as ENGWIS is under development.

Solutions to Enhance Groundwater Use
Carry out studies to understanda the regional groundwater system.

Government and donor agencies need to cooperate in the use of a single source of data and information.

Give help to finance drilling
Extend university courses to accommodate more hydrogeology in their programs.

Vocational training institutions need support to meet the emerging demand for skilled labor in the drilling industry.

Manual Well Drilling
Establishing private manual well drilling enterprises to provide low-cost access to groundwater would expand the irrigated farm production area and offers the potential to improve the livelihoods of millions of smallholder farmers.
The Opportunity
Establishing an industry for manual well drilling to access groundwater for irrigation would benefit low-income, smallholder farmers; provide a healthy return on investment for well drilling enterprises, and create employment.
What is Manual Well Drilling?
Teams use manual labor and simple technologies to access shallow groundwater. In many Asian countries it is a well established business. Once a well is drilled, farmers have a range of water lifting, storage and application options.

In Africa, manual drilling is prevalent in Sudan, Chad, Nigeria and Niger. In Nigeria, more than 100,000 wells have been manually drilled; and in Niger, 42 private sector drilling teams have drilled more than 18,000 wells.

Main Findings
But Manual well drilling is only feasible in specific hydro-geologic conditions. In 2009, IDE initiated a pilot program in three locations in Ethiopia which had an 80% success rate.

The pilot demonstrated a high potential demand among farmers for greater access to groundwater. For every well drilled, an additional three farmers expressed interest in a well.

The key constraints for farmers are difficulty obtaining investment capital and the lack of skilled drillers.

The geology in Ethiopia makes drilling challenging but there are numerous areas with shallow water and permeable soil layers with high potential for manual drilling.

Steps to establish a Manual Well Drilling Industry
Produce maps showing where manual drilling is suitable and the potential number of farmers who could benefit.
    Set up a program to train and certify manual well drillers.
    Raise awareness among smallholder farmers to create more demand for wells.
    Help farmers access water lifting technologies.
    Train smallholder farmers in high-value irrigated crop production and marketing.
    Support private sector supply chains for spare parts, drilling equipment and pumps.
    Develop financial products and services to support the value chain.
    Monitor environmental risks and set up a national database on water resource availability, quality and drilling conditions.